Guryev is a Judo master and from 1978 to 1987, served as an instructor and Committee Secretary for the Mosgorsovet’s Dinamo Komsomol organization.
Guryev was born in Lobnya, a town 27 kilometers (17 mi) north of Moscow. He graduated in 1983 from the Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism, with a degree in physical education and sport. Guryev was further educated at the University of Greenwich, where he graduated with a bachelor's degree in economics in 2003, as well as at the Russian Government Academy of National Economy, graduating in 2004, and at St. Petersburg National Mineral Resources University, where he graduated with post-graduate certificate in Economics in 2010.
From 1990 to 1995 he was Deputy Director of the Menatep Group.
In 1995, he was appointed as Head of the Mining and Chemical Products Department, First Deputy CEO of ROSPROM and subsequently head of the Y. V. Samoilov Research Institute for Fertilizers and Insectofungicides (NIUIF).
Between 2011 and 2013 Guryev served as a Member of the Federation Council from the executive branch of the Murmansk oblast government.
In 2012, PhosAgro purchased 20% of Apatit. Guryev led a management buyout to acquire control of Apatit and PhosAgro, and now owns 100% of the company.
In 2013, Andrey Guryev was appointed Deputy Chairman of PhosAgro's Board of Directors. This came after he made the decision to step down as Senator, citing the new laws regarding foreign bank account owned by Russian entrepreneurs as his reason for stepping down after 11 years as a Politician.
In 2014 Guryev sold an increased stake in PhosAgro to Valdimir Litvineko, bringing the latter's total ownership to 9.73%, up from 4.92% in 2011.
In early 2015, current CEO Andrei Guryev Jr, Andrey Guryev’s son, was reported as saying, “PhosAgro is the most profitable phosphate fertilizer company in the world.”
In July 2016, Forbes estimated his net worth at US$4.3 billion.
PhosAgro is structured so that Guryev and his family are recipients of a trust, rather than outright ownership in their names, though Evgenia Guryev, Guryev’s wife, owns 4.82% of PhosAgro in her own name.